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NĂM HỌC: 2021-2022

Quang trung Da Nang



Đà Nẵng ngày 20 tháng 6 năm 2020




Công thức

Dấu hiệu nhận biết


- V to be:

S + am / is / are

S + am / is / are + not

Am / Is / Are + S + …?

V thường:

S + V1/ V(s/es)

S + don’t/ doesn’t + V1

Do / Does + S + V1 …?

- always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never, every, normally, regularly, occasionally, as a rule, once / twice a week …


S + am/is/are + V-ing

S + am/ is/ are + not + V-ing

Am / Is /Are + S + V-ing?

- at the moment, now, right now, at present

- Look!

- Listen!

- Be quiet!

- Keep silence!

Note: một số động từ thường không dùng với thì tiếp diễn: like, dislike, hate, love, want, prefer, admire, believe, understand, remember, forget, know, belong, have, taste, smell, ….


S + has / have + V3/-ed

S + has / have + not + V3/-ed

Has / Have + S + V3/-ed?

- lately, recently (gần đây)

- so far, up to now, up to the present (cho tới bây giờ)

- in the past (ten) years (trong mười năm qua)

- in the last (years) (những năm gần đây)

- all my / his / her / their … life

- already, ever, never, just, yet, for, since.

- how long …

- this is the first time/second time…


S + has / have + been + V-ing

S + has / have + not + been + V-ing

Has / Have + S + been + V-ing …?

- for + khoảng th/g + now (for two hours now, for three years now …)


V to be:

S + was / were + O

S + wasn’t / weren’t + O

Was / Were + S + O …?

V thường:

S + V2 / V-ed

S + didn’t + V1

Did + S + V1 ….?

- yesterday, last (last week, last month, last year …), ago, in 1990, in the past, in 19th century, in 18th century, …


S + was / were + V-ing

S + was / were + not + V-ing

Was / Were + S + V-ing…?

- at that time, at (9 o’clock) last night, at this time (last week), in the summer, during the summer, all day, all week, all month, …


S + had + V3/-ed

S + hadn’t + V3/-ed

Had + S + V3/-ed …?

- already, ever, never, before, by, by the time, after, until, when, ….


S + will / shall + V1

S + will / shall + not + V1

         (won’t / shan’t + V1)

Will / Shall + S + V1 …?

- tomorrow, next, in 2012, ….

- I think / guess 

- I am sure / I am not sure


S + will / shall + be + V-ing

S + will / shall + be + V-ing

Will / Shall + S + be + V-ing…?

- at 9 o’clock tonight, at this time tomorrow, all this afternoon, evening, morning, …


S + will /shall + have + V3/-ed

S + won’t / shan’t + have + V3/-ed

Will / Shall + S + have + V3/-ed ….?

- when, before, by, by the time, by the end of next month, next year …

II/ EXERCISE : Choose the best answer

1. When I got home I found that water...............................down the kitchen walls

A. ran  B. was running C. has run               D. had been running

2. After he.......................his English course, he went to England to continue his study

A. has finish B. had finished C. was finished D. would finish

3. How.........................since we

A. are you- left           B. were you- left      C. have you been- have left         D. have you been- left

4. I..................much of you lately. We..........................three months ago

A. haven’t seen- last meet B. didn’t see- met

C. haven’t seen- have meet D. didn’t see- have met

5. The Chinese.......................spaghetti dishes for a long time before Marco Polo.................back to Italy

A. made- brought B. have made- brought

C. made- had brought D. had been making- brought

6. When I arrived at the meeting the first speaker.................speaking and the audience...................

A. just finished- were clapping B. had just finished- had clapped

C. had just finished- were clapping D. just finished- had clapped

7. He.............................his job last month and then he..................out of work

A. lost- was B. was lost- had been C. has lost- was D. lost- has been

8. In the last hundred years, travelling.......................much easier and more comfortable

A. become B. has become C. became D. will became

9. In the 19th century, it.............two or three months to across North America by covered wagon

A. took B. had taken C. had been taken D. was taking

10. In the past, the trip.............very rough and often dangerous, but things..........a great deal in the last hundred and fifty years

A. was- have changed B. is- change C. had been- will change D. has been- changed

11. She................Hanoi last year

A. went B. go C. goes D. is going

12. Now you ..................from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours

A. are flying B. would fly C. will fly D. can fly

13. When Carol....................last night, favorite show on television

A. was calling- watched B. called- have watched

C. called- was watching D. had called- watched

14. By the time next summer, you....................your studies

A. completes              B. will complete          C. are completing       D. will have completed

15. Right now, Jim.................the newspaper and Kathy...............dinner

A. reads- has cooked B. is reading- is cooking

C. has read- was cooking D. read- will be cooking

16. Last night at this time, they......................the same thing. She.................and he............the newspaper

A. are doing- is cooking- is reading B. were doing- was cooking- was reading

C. was doing- has cooked- is reading D. had done- was cooking- read

17. change a light bulb when he................and.........................

A. was trying-slipped- fell B. tried- was slipping- falling

C. had been trying- slipped- was falling D. has tried- slips- falls

18. Every day I ____up at 6 o’clock, ____breakfast at seven o’clock and_______for work at 8 o’clock

A. get- eat- leave B. have got- eating- leaving

C. got- ate- left              D. will get- have eaten- left

19. I........... for this company for more then thirty years, and I intend to stay here until year

A. am working- will retire B. am going to work- am retiring

C. work- am going to retire D. have been working- retire

20. My mother is the first.................up and the bed

A. getting- going B. to get- going C. getting- to go D. to get- to go

21. I must have a bath. I ......................all the afternoon

A. was gardening B. have gardened

C. have been gardening D. had been gardening

22. The team.................a single match so far this season

A. doesn’t win B. didn’t win C. hasn’t won D. hadn’t won

23.By the time you receive this letter, I ................for the USA

A. have left B. will leave C. will have left D. am leaving

24. Up to now, the manager ………………..a lot of information about his secretary.

      A. learned B. has learned C. had learned D.learns 

25. Where is Mary? _ She ……………her homework in her room.

      A. is performing B. is making C. is doing learning

26. While I ……………….along the road, I saw a friend of mine.

A. was cycling B. have cycled C. cycled cycling 

27. By the time I . . . . . . . . . .  this report, I will give you a ring.

     A. type B. will type C. have typed          D.willhave typed

28. While my mother ________ a film on TV, my father was cooking dinner. It was March 8th yesterday.

     A. watched  B. was watching C. had watched         D. watches

29. The plane from Dallas __ two hours late, so I missed my connecting flight from Frankfurt to London.

     A. took on    B. took in                            C. took over D. took off

30. When we came, a party _________ in the hall.

     A. is being held B. had being held C. will be held         D. was being held

-----------THE END---------



DẠNG BỊ ĐỘNG (PASSIVE VOICE):    Cấu trúc khái quát: S + be + V-ed/3         Cách chuyển

Active:        S    +      V   +      Obj.

Passive:     S   +    Be  +  V-ed/3  +   ( by Obj)

Cấu trúc cụ thể:




1. Simple present

S + V(s/es)

S + am / is / are + V-ed/3

2.Present continuous

S + am/is/are +V-ing

S + am/is/are + being + V-ed/3

3. Present perfect

S + has/have + Ved/3

S + has/have + been + V-ed/3

4. Simple past

S + Ved/2

S + was/ were + V-ed/3

5. Past continuous

S + was/ were +V-ing

S + was/ were + being + V-ed/3

6. Past perfect

S + had + Ved/3

S + had + been + V-ed/3

7. Simple future

S + will + V(o)

S + will + be + V-ed/3

8. Modal verbs: can,could,will,would,shall,should,may,

might,must,used to ,have to,has to,had to…

S + can/could/should/must/may + Vo

S + can/must … + be + V-ed/3

9. Động từ đặc biệt:

Have / Get

S + have + O1 (person) + V(0) + O2 (thing)

I had himrepairmy bicycle yesterday.

S + get + O1 ( person ) + to-V + O2 (thing )

I get herto makesome coffee.

S + have + O2 (thing) + V-ed/3

I had my bicyclerepaired yesterday.

S + get + O2 + V-ed/3

I get some coffeemade.

10. Verbs of opinion(động từ chỉ ý kiến):Say, think, believe, report, …

Sa + say + (that) + Clause (Sb +Vb + Ob)

* People said that he had gone abroad.

*They said that Tom was working in London.

*They expect that the price of steel will go down next month.

+ It + be(thì) + said +(that) - Clause

+ Sb + be(thì)+ said - to- V

- to have - V-ed/3

>It was said that he had gone broad.

>He was said to have gone abroad.

>Tom was said to be working in London.

>The price of steel is expected to go down next month.

To infinitive

To + V0

- They want to invite Tom to the party.

To be +Ved/3

- Tom wants to be invited to the party.                



- Your parents can’t count on recuing you every time.

Being +  Ved/3

- You can’t count on being rescued by your parents every time.

II/ EXERCISE: Choose the best answer

1. We can’t go along here because the road........................

A. is repairing B. is repaired C. is being repaired D. repairs

2. The story I’ve just read...................Agatha Christie

A. was written B. was written by C. was written from D. wrote by

3. I’m going to go out and.................................................

A. have cut my hair B. have my hair cut C. cut my hair      D. my hair be cut

4. Something funny class yesterday

A. happened B. was happened C. happens D. is happened

5. Many US Detroit, Michigan

A. manufacture B. have manufactured C. are manufactured     D. are manufacturing

6. A lot of pesticide residue can........................................unwashed produce

A. find B. found C. be finding D. be found

7. a loud noise during the night

A. woke up B. are woken up         C. were woken up          D. were waking up

8. Some film stars...................difficult to work with

     A. are said be B. are said to be C. say to be D. said to be

9. Why did Tom keep making jokes about me? – I don’t

A. be laughed B. to be laughed C. laughing          D. being laughed

10. Today, many serious childhood early immunization

A. are preventing B. can prevent C. prevent       D. can be prevented

11. Do you get your heating..........................every year?

A. checking B. check C. be checked D. checked

12. the driveway

A. must not leave B. must not be leaving C. must not be left         D. must not have left

13. Beethoven’s Fifth weekend

A. is going to be performed B. has been performed

D. will be performing D. will have perform

14. All bottles......................................before transportation

A. frozen B. were froze C. were frozen D. are froze

15. ...............................................yet?

      A. Have the letters been typed B. Have been the letters typed

C. Have the letters typed D. Had the letters typed

16. English has become a second language in countries like India, Nigeria or Singapore where.............for administration, broadcasting and education

A. is used B. it is used C. used D. being used

17. The Alexander Graham Bell

A. is invented B. is inventing C. invented D. was invented

18. Lots of the earthquake

A. are destroying B. destroyed C. were destroyed D. is destroyed

19. California in the 19th century

A. was discovered B. has been discovered C. was discover          D. they discover

20. The the time the guest............................

A. had been finished- arrived B. have finished- arrived

C. had finished-were arriving D. have been finished- were arrived

  1. The boy_____ by the teacher yesterday.

A. punish                          B. punished  C. punishing                        D. was punished

22. “Ms Jones, please type those letters before noon”

     “They’ve already ______, sir. They’re on your desk.”

A. typed B. been being typed      C. being typed          D. been typed

23. Sarah is wearing a blouse. It___________ of cotton. made                        B.are made        made                                D.made

24. They had a boy _______ that yesterday.

A. done B. to do                       C. did                                      D. do 

25. We got our mail ______ yesterday.

A. been delivered B. delivered C. delivering D. to deliver 

26. James……..the news as soon as possible.

A. should tell                    B. should be told C.should told                          D. should be telled

27. My wedding ring ______ yellow and white gold.

A. is made B. is making                C.  made                                 D. make

  1. Mr. Wilson is _______ as Willie to his friend.

A. known B. knew                       C. is known                            D. know

29. References _____ in the examination room.

A. not are used B. is not used             C. didn’t used                         D. are not used 

30. Laura ______ in Boston.

A. are born B. were born               C. was born                            D. born


--------------THE END-----------



I/ LÝ THUYẾT* Các thay đổi trong câu gián tiếp

  1. Thay đổi động từ tường thuật: 

Chú ý: SAY TO: không bao giờ được dùng ở lời nói gián tiếp. (phải đổi bằng TELL + (O))

           TELL: không bao giờ được dùng ở lời nói trực tiếp. 

2. Thay đổi các ngôi ( đại từ, tính từ, đại từ sở hữu):

3. Thay đổi thời gian, địa điểm, các từ chỉ định

a. Từ chỉ thời gian, nơi chốn

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

- now

- an hour ago

- today

- tonight

- yesterday

- tomorrow

- Yesterday morning/ afternoon

- Tomorrow morning

- the day before yesterday

- the day after tomorrow

- last year

- next month

- here

- this/ these

🡪 then, at that time, at once, immediately

🡪 an hour before/an hour earlier

🡪 that day

🡪 that night

🡪  the day before/the previous day

🡪 the next day/the following day

🡪 the previous morning/ afternoon

🡪 the next/following morning

🡪 two days before

🡪 (in) two days’ time

🡪  the year before/the previous year

🡪 the month after/the following month


🡪 that /those

4. Thay đổi thì của động từ

Khi các động từ tường thuật (say, tell, ask…) ở thì quá khứ, động từ trong câu gián tiếp phải lùi về quá khứ một thì so với câu trực tiếp.

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

Simple Present: “I don’t know this man”

Present Continuous: “I’m working for a foreign company”

Present Perfect: “I’ve read a good book”

Present Perfect Continuous: “I have been writing my report”.

Simple Past: “I finished my assignment”

Simple Future: “I will do it later”

Modal Verbs:

“I can work late today”

“I may see her tonight”

“I must/have to go now”

Simple Past: He said he didn’t know that man

Past Continuous: He said he was working for a foreign company

Past Perfect: He said he had read a good book

Past Perfect Continuous: He said he had been writing his report

Past Perfect: He said he had finished his assignment

Future in the past: He said he would do it later.

Past forms of modals:

He said he could work late that day

He said he might see her that night

He said he had to go then

b. Khi động từ tường thuật (say, tell, ask…) ở thì quá khứ, động từ trong câu gián tiếp không đổi thì  trong các trường hợp sau :

- Tường thuật một sự thật hiển nhiên, một chân lý, định luật khoa học hay vật lý: 

- Được tường thuật ngay sau khi nói hay khi thuật lại sự kiện vẫn không đổi:

- Khi động từ trong câu trực tiếp là các động từ như: USED TO, hay các động từ khiếm khuyết: COULD, WOULD, SHOULD, MIGHT, OUGHT TO, HAD TO, HAD BETTER 

- Khi động từ trong  câu trực tiếp ở các thì: Past Continuous, Past perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, (nếu thì Simple Past đi kèm một thời gian cụ thể có thể không thay đổi thì).

- Khi tường thuật mệnh đề ước muốn (wish): theo sau động từ WISH, WOULD RATHER, IF ONLY

 - Các câu điều kiện loại 2, 3 (câu điều kiện không thật)

- Cấu trúc “It’s (high) time…”

C/  Các loại câu gián tiếp

1. Tường thuật câu trần thuật (statements)

- Dùng sayhoặc tell để tường thuật

- Thường bắt đầu bằng: He said that…./ she said to me that…/ they told me that….,

2. Tường thuật câu hỏi (questions)

a. Đối với câu hỏi trực tiếp (Wh-question)

S +V + wh- word +S+V( lùi về một bậc) 

b. Đối với câu hỏi “Yes – No” hoặc câu hỏi lựa chọn “Or”

- Phải thêm từ “if/whether” để mở đầu câu tường thuật

S +V + if/ whether +S+V( lùi về một bậc) 

3. Câu tường thuật với “infinitive”:

a. Tường thuật câu mệnh lệnh, yêu cầu (Imperatives / Commands or Requests)dùng cấu trúc:tell/ ask/ request/ order somebody (not) to do something

b. Tường thuật lời khuyên (Advice) dùng cấu trúc:advise somebody (not) to do something

Lời khuyên: - Had better, ought to, should, must

                    - Why don’t you + V?

                    - If I were you, I’d (not) + V…

c. Tường thuật lời mời (Invitation) dùng cấu trúc: invite somebody to do something

d. Tường thuật lời cảnh báo (warn) dùng cấu trúc: warn somebody (not) to do something 

e. Tường thuật lời nhắc nhở (reminders) dùng cấu trúc: remind somebody to do something

f. Tường thuật lời động viên (encouragement) dùng cấu trúc: encourage / urge somebody to do something

g. Tường thuật lời cấu khẩn dùng cấu trúc: beg/implore somebody to do something

h. Tường thuật lời đề nghị , tự nguyện (offers) dùng cấu trúc: offer to do something 

Lời đề nghị: - Shall I + V

                    - Would you like me + to V

                    - Let me + V

i. Tường thuật lời hứa (Promises) dùng cấu trúc: promise (not) to do something

j. Tường thuật lời đe dọa (threat)dùng cấu trúc: threaten to do something.

4. Câu tường thuật với “gerund”

Các cấu trúc của câu tường thuật với danh động từ:

S + V + V-ing: admit, deny, suggest…

S + V + preposition + V-ing: apologize for, complain about, confess to, insist on, object to, dream of, think of…

S + V + O + preposition + V-ing: accuse..of, blame…for, congratulate…on, criticize…for, warn…about/against, praise…for, thank…for, prevent…from…

5. Câu cảm thán trong lời nói gián tiếp

What a lovely dress! 🡪   She exclaimed that the dress was lovely. 

                                         She exclaimed that the dress was a lovely one. 

                                         She exclaimed with admiration at the sight of the dress.

6. Các hình thức hỗn hợp trong lời nói gián tiếp

She said, “Can you play the piano?” and I said “no”        

🡪    She asked me if I could play the piano and I said that I could not

II/ EXERCISE: Choose the best answer

1. Julia said that she ___________ there at noon.  

A. is going to be B. was going to be C. will be D. can be 

2. He _______ that he was leaving way that afternoon.

A. told me B. told to me C. said me D. says to me

3. She said to me that she __________ to me the Sunday before.

A. wrote B. has written C. was writing D. had writing

4. I _________ him to sell that old motorbike.

A. said to B. suggested C. advised D. recommended

5. My parents reminded me ________ the flowers.

A. remember to plant B. not to plant to plant C. to plant D. planting

6. I asked Martha ______ to enter law school.

A. are you planning B. is she planning C. was she planning     D. if she was planning

7. Nam wanted to know what time ________.

A. does the movie begin B. did the movie begin C. the movie begins D. the movie began

8. I wondered_______ the right thing.

A. whether I was doing B. if I am doing C. was I doing D. am I doing

9. The scientist said the earth ________ the sun.

A. goes around B. is going around C. went around       D. was going around

10. Peter said that if he ________rich, he _________ a lot.

A. is – will travel B. were – would travel

C. had been – would have travelled D. was – will travel

11. They said that they had been driving through the desert__________.

A. the previous day B. yesterday C. the last day        D. Sunday previously

12. He asked the children _________too much noise.

A. not to make B. not making C. don’t make        D. if they don’t make

13. The man said that the days _________longer in summer.

A. will be B. are C. were D. can be

14. The teacher said Columbus _________America in 1942.

A. discovered B. had discovered C. was discovering D. would discover

15. John said he _________ her since they ________ school.

A. hasn’t met – left B. hadn’t met - had left C. hadn’t met – left   D. didn’t meet – has left

16. The woman asked __________get lunch at school.

A. can the children B. whether the children could C. if the children can      D. could the children

17. Laura said that when she_________ to school, she saw an accident.

A. was walking B. has walked C. had been walking D. has been walking

18. He asked, “Why didn’t she take the final exam?” - He asked why __________ the final exam.

A. she took B. did she take C. she hadn’t taken D. she had taken              

19. Ba said he__________ some good marks last semester.

A. gets B. got C. getting D. have got

20. They told their parents that they___________ their best to do the test.

A. try B. will try C. are trying D. would try

21. She asked me where I___________ from.

A. come B. coming C. to come D. came

22. She_________ me whether I liked classical music or not.

A. ask B. asks C. asked D. asking

23. He asked me who____________ the editor of that book. 

A. was B. were C. is D. has been

24. He wants to know whether I ___________ back tomorrow.

   A. come B. came C. will come D. would come

25. I wonder why he___________ love his family.

A. doesn’t B. don’t C. didn’t D. hasn’t

26. They asked me how many children___________.

A. I had B. had I C. I have D. have I

27. Thu said she had been___________ the day before.

A. here B. there C. in this place D. where

28. The student said that the English test_______ the most difficult.

A. is B. was C. will be D. have been

29. He wanted to know _______ shopping during the previous morning.

A. if we had been going B. that if we had been going

C. we were going D. that we were going

30. He asked me _______ Robert and I said I did not know _______.

A. that did I know / who were Robert B. that I knew / who Robert were

C. if I knew / who Robert was D. whether I knew / who was Robert

-----------THE END----------



1/ Conditional sentences: TYPE 1:

   a) use: câu điều kiện loại 1 còn được gọi là câu điều kiện có thực ở hiện tại .Điều kiện có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai.

  b) Form: 

If + S + V (hiện tại đơn ) ,  S + Will(can,may) + V (nguyên mẫu) .

      (S + Will(can,may)  + V(nguyên mẫu)  +  If + S + V(hiện tại đơn).

2/  Conditional sentences :TYPE 2:

  1. use : câu điều kiện loại 2 dùng để diễn tả một hành động không có thật ở hiện tại.

  2. Form :

If + S + V(quá khứ đơn )  , S +Would (could , might ..) + V( nguyên mẫu).

( S +Would( could , might) + V( nguyên mẫu ) + If +S +V (quá khứ đơn)) .

3/ Conditional sentences : Type 3.

     a/ use: Diễn tả hành động không có thật ở quá khứ.

     b/ Form : 

          If +S +had +V(PII) , S + Would ( could ,might ) + have + V(PII).

          ( S + Would (could , might ) +have +V(PII) +IF + S +had +V (PII ).

4/ Một số trường hợp câu điều kiện đặc biệt


Form: If + S + had + P2, S + would have + P2

Ex: 1. If I hadn’t stayed up late last night, I wouldn’t be so tired now.

      2. You wouldn’t be so hungry if you had had breakfast this morning

🡪 Trong trường hợp này, mệnh đề If chia động từ ở loại 3, mệnh đề chính chia động từ ở loại 2


* Đảo ngữ đk loại 1

Should + S + Vinfinitive, S + Will + Vinfinitive

* Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 2: 

Were + S + (to + Vinfinitive), S + Would + Vinfinitive

If I learnt Russian, I would read a Russian book. 

=> Were I to learn Russian, I would read a Russian book 

* Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 3:

Had + S + P2, S + would have + P2

Ex : If Ann had found the right buyer, she would have sold the house.
🡪Had Ann found the right buyer, she would have sold the house

* Đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện kết hợp:

Had + S + P2, S + would Vinfinitive


*Imperative (mệnh lệnh) + or/and + S + V(simple future).

Ex: Prepare the lesson carefully or you will get a bad mark.

  = If you don"t prepare the lesson carefully, you will get a bad mark.

* Unless = If .... not ( Trừ khi)

If he doesn’t come, I will bring this package to him

Unless he comes, I will bring this package to him

* In case ( Phòng khi điều gì đó xảy ra)

Trong mệnh đề theo sau In case thường dùng thì hiện tại đơn hoặc quá khứ đơn, không dung will hoặc would

I always take an umbrella in case it rains

* Dùng With/Without/ But for

With/ Without/ But for + a noun/ a noun phrase

Eg: If you help me, I can finish this assignment

= With your help, I can finish this assignment

Without water, life wouldn’t exist 

 = If there were no water, life wouldn’t exist.

* As long as/ So long as/ Provided (that)/ Providing (that)/ On condition that + Clause ( Miễn là/ với điều kiện)

ExAs long as you drive carefully, you can use my car.     

                 = If you drive carefully, you can use my car.

* Otherwise ( Nếu không thì ) : Dùng để thay thế cho vế If và liên quan đến một ýtưởng của câu trước.

(Trước Otherwise thường có dấu; hoặc dấu , sau otherwise có dấu ,)

Eg: You must read the instruction; otherwise, you don’t know how to do it


II/ EXERCISE: Choose the best answer

1.If that hat costs much , I ……………a small one .

   A . would have bought          B.will buy                   C.bought                D.would buy.

2. If you …………more carefully ,you wouldn’t have had so many accidents.

A. drive                                    B.drove                       C.had driven             D.driven 

3. If I spoke English , my job …………………a lot easier.

A.was                                       B.were                          C.will be                    D.would be 

4. If he …………….to London  yesterday, he  ………….his old friend

A.went / would meet                B.go / would meet    C.had gone / would have met     D.went / would have met 

5.I will lend them some money If they …………….me .

A.ask                                       B.will ask                  C.asked                   D.had asked 

6.If we had known who he was , we …………….him to speak at our meeting .

A.would have invited            B.have invited                C.will invite             D.would invite

7.My dog will bark if it …………….any strange sound.

A.hear                B.hears               C.heard                D.had heard.

8.If I ………….enough money ,I will buy a house.

A.had                  B had had                   C.will have                 D.have 

9.If you …………..away , I will send for a policeman.

A.not go                 B.don’t go                C.hadn’t gone          D.didn’t go 

10. If I  ………in your place , I would accept Mr Anderson’s invitation .

A.were                                          D.was 

11.What ………..we do if they don’t come tomorrow?

A.would                  B.will                   C.did                 D.had 

12.If I …………….you, I would tell the truth.                                  C.were                     D.was 

13.If I had enough time now , I ……… my parents.

A.would write           B.write                C.will write              D.wrote 

14.It’s too bad Helen isn’t here .If she ……… , she ……..what to do. / will know                  B.was / knows C.were / would know                         D.are / would have known

15.If she ………….late again , she will lose her job.

A.come                      B.came              C comes                  D.had come 

16.I will let you know if I ………..out what’s happening .

A.find                          B.finds                  C.found               D.had found 

17.If we …………….in a town , life would be better .                          B.lived                        C.would live             D.had lived 

18.I’m sure he wouln’t mind if we ……………early .

A.arrive                       B.arriving                   C.arrived                D.had arrived 

19 .If I won the lottery , I …….you half the money .

A.gave                        B.had given                C.will give                D.would give 

20.It ……… a pity if she married Fred.

A.will                         B.would                 C.can                        D.may 

21.If I’m free on Saturday , I ………… the mountains. go                       B.could go                 C.went                  D.can go 

22.we …………….you if we have time .

A.will phone                 B.would phone             C.phoned              D.had phoned 

23.If I ………….you ,I would help them .                            B will be                         C.were                      D.had been 

24.I could have understood him if he ……………more slowly.

A.speaks                      B.spoke                    C.had spoken               D.would speak 

25.If I had known that you were in hospital, I ……………

A.will visit                B.would have visited              C.visit            D.don’t visit 

26.I wouldn’t have believed it if I ………………it with my own eyes.

A.had seen                 B.saw                          C.hadn’t seen            D.didn’t see

27.What would you have done if the lift ………..struck between two floors at that time.

A.had got                               C.gets                     D.getting

28.If I …………that the traffic lights were red, I …………………..

A.had realized / would have stopped                   B. had realized / wouldn’t have stopped

C.realized / would stop                                         C.realize / will not stop 

29. If we have some eggs ,I ……………you a cake .

A.made                 B.makes                     C.will make                 D.would make 

30.If you …………so busy , I would have shown you how to play .

A.hadn’t been           B.weren’t               C.aren’t                   D.wouldn’t be .

------------THE END----------



1.Defining relative clauses: (Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định)

    - Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước chưa được xác định rõ, nếu bỏ đi thì mệnh đề chính sẽ không rõ nghĩa.

Ex: I saw the girl. She helped me last week.

  • I saw the girl who/ that helped me last week.


  • Who: được dùng để thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người và làm chủ ngữ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ  

(…… N + who + V)

The man who is standing over there is my father.

      N        who          V

  • Whom: được dùng thay thế cho một danh từ chỉ người và làm tân ngữ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ.  

(……N + whom + S + V)

The man whom you met yesterday is my brother.

      N       whom    S     V

  • Whose: là đại từ quan hệ sở hữu, thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người hoặc danh từ chỉ vật (thay cho: his, her, its, their, (……N + whose + N)

The house whose windows are broken is mine.

        N              whose          N           V1       V2

             + Riêng danh từ chỉ vật có thể thay thế bằng the + N + of which

Example: The house the window of which are broken is mine

  • Which: được dùng làm chủ ngữ hoặc tân ngữ thay thế cho danh từ chỉ đồ vật, con vật hoặc sự việc.

(……N + which + S + V/  N + which + V)

Example: This is the book which I like best.

  • That: được dùng thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người hoặc chỉ vật, hoặc chủ ngữ gồm cả người và vật, sau những đại từ không xác định ( someone, anyone, something, no one, all, much…..), hoặc sau dạng so sánh nhất (the most, the first, second, only,…..last) .

(……N + that + S + V/  N + that + V)

Example: - That is the bicycle that/ which belongs to Tom.

      - The architect who/ that designed this building is very famous.

2.Non- defining relative clauses:( Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định)

- Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước đã được xác định rõ ( nó là phần giải thích thêm), nếu bỏ đi thì mệnh đề chính vẫn rõ nghĩa.

Ex: My father is a doctor. He is fifty years old.

 -> My father, who is fifty years old, is a doctor

                           MĐ QH KXĐ

- Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định nằm ngăn cách với mệnh đề chính bởi dấu phẩy.

- Chúng ta không dùng THAT trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định.


- Khi Whom và Which là tân ngữ của giới từ thì trong tiếng Anh trang trọng giới từ được đặt trước đại từ quan hệ. Nhưng thường thì giới từ được chuyển về cuối mệnh đề và trong trường hợp này mệnh đề quan hệ xác định có thể lượt bỏ đại từ quan hệ hoặc dùng That thay thế cho Whom hoặc Which.

Ví dụ: The man is my brother. You are talking about him.  

 —> The man about whom you are talkingis my brother.

—> The man  (whom/ that) you are talking about is my brother.

Ví dụ : The picture is very expensive. You are looking at it.

—> The picture at which you are looking is very expensive.

—> The picture ( which/ that) you are looking at is very expensive.


- Mệnh đề quan hệ có thể rút gọn theo 4 cách:

A. Sử dụng hiện tại phân từ (Using present participial phrases )

- Khi mệnh đề quan hệ xác định ở thể chủ động, ta có thể dùng cụm hiện tại phân từ (V-ING phrase) thay cho mệnh đề đó (bỏ đại từ quan hệ và trợ động từ, đưa động từ chính về nguyên mẫu rồi thêm –ing).

  …….N + WHO                                                    

  …….N+ WHICH + V   + …                               …… N +  V-ING + …                    

  ……N+ THAT 

Ex1: The man who is sitting next to you is my uncle.

  • The man sitting to you is my uncle.

Ex 2: Do you know the boy who broke the windows last night?

  • Do you know the boy breaking the windows last night?

B. Sử dụng cụm quá khứ phân từ (Using past participial phrase) 

- Khi mệnh đề quan hệ xác định ở thể bị động, ta có thể dùng cụm quá khứ phân từ (Ved/ V3 phrase) để thay thế cho mệnh đề đó. (Bỏ đại từ quan hệ, trợ động từ và bắt đầu cụm từ bằng past participle).

…….N + WHO                                                    

..….N+ WHICH + BE   +  V3/ V_ed…                     …… N +  V3/ V_ed + …                                                 

……N+ THAT  

Ex1:      The books which were written by To Hoai are interesting.

->The books written by To Hoai are interesting.

Ex 2.    The students who were punished by the teacher are lazy.

          ->The students punished by the teacher are lazy.

C. Sử dụng cụm từ nguyên mẫu( infinitive phrase) 

  • Khi mệnh đề quan hệ theo sau danh từ có bổ ngữ là the first/second v.v. and sau the last/ only và đôi khi sau so sánh nhất ta có thể thay thế bằng cụm từ nguyên mẫu.

Ex1.     He is the last man who left the ship = He is the last man to leave the ship.

Ex 2.    The only one who understood that problem was M.r Pike

           =  The only one to understand that problem was M.r Pike

- Khi mệnh đề quan hệ là một mục đích ,nhiệm vụ hoặc sự cho phép.

Ex 1. He has a lot of book that he can/must read = He has a lot of book to read.

Ex2.  He had something that he could/ had to do = He had something to do 


  • Các đại từ quan hệ có chức năng tân ngữ trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định đều có thể lược bỏ.

Ex : - Do you know the boy (whom) we met yesterday?

  -That’s the house (which) I have bought.

  • Tuy nhiên các đại từ quan hệ có chức năng tân ngữ trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định không thể lược bỏ.

Ex:  Mr Tom, whom I spoke on the phone to , is very interested in our plan.

  • Ta cũng không thể lượt bỏ đại từ quan hệ whom hay which khi nó đứng sau giới từ. Muốn lược bỏ ta phải đưa giới từ về cuối mệnh đề.


a. WHERE (in/ on/ at ... which): thay thế cho: the place, there, hometown, village.....


 Ex1: - The movie theater is the place. We can see films at that place.

                   🡪 The movie theater is the place where we can see films.

b. WHEN (in/ on which): thay thế cho: day, time, year, then....


Ex1: - Do you remember the day. We first met on that day.

                 🡪 Do you remember the day when we first met?

c. WHY (for which): thay thế cho: the reason....


Ex1: - Tell me the reason. You are so sad for that reason.

                  🡪 Tell me the reason why you are so sad.

II/ EXERCISE: Choose the best answer

1. The place __________ we spent our holiday was really beautiful.

A. what B. who C. where D. which

2. The children, __________ parents work late, are taken home by bus.

A. that B. whom C. whose D. their

3. He wanted to know the reason __________ I was late.

A. as B. for C. because D. why

4. My uncle, __________ you met yesterday, is a lawyer.

A. which B. what C. whose D. whom

5. Dien Bien Phu is the place __________ our army won a resounding victory in 1954.

A. where B. that C. what D. which

6. The man __________ we met yesterday was the manager of a bicycle factory.

A. when B. whose C. who D. which

7. In our school library, there are several large tables  __________ we can sit to read books.

A. where B. that C. when D. which

8. Yesterday was the day __________ they celebrated their 21st wedding anniversary.

A. when B. then C. what D. which

9. That’s the house __________ he used to stay.

A. in which B. of which C. on which D. which

10. This house, __________ he bought in 1990, is being repaired at the moment.

A. that B. which C. who D. what

11. The woman __________ son is studying at Hanoi University of Technology is a teacher.

A. whose B. what C. whom D. which

12. The boy __________ eyes are brown is my friend.

A. who B. whom C. which D. whose

13. He never talks about the people  __________ he has helped.

A. by whom B. whom C. which D. whose

14. This school is only for children __________ first language is not English.

A. of whom B. whose C. who is D. who

15. Mrs. John, __________ son won the championship last year lives next door to us.

A. whose B. what C. which D. who

16. He is the person _________

A. from who I bought this old car B. which I bought this old car from

C. from that I bought this old car D. from whom I bought this old car

17. An architect is someone ____________.

A. that design buildings B. who designs buildings

C. whose designs buildings D. which designs buildings

18. The girl ____________ is now in hospital

A. whom injured in the accident B. was injured in the accident

C. who was injured in the accident D. that she was injured in the accident

19. The man __________ was on holiday.

A. I wanted to see B. whom I wanted to see him

C. I wanted to see him D. who wanted to see

20. Do you know the girl ______________

A. to who Tom is talking B. whom Tom is talking

C. Tom is talking D. to whom Tom is talking

21. I haven’t got a passport, ____________.

A. that means I can’t leave the country B. it means I can’t leave the country

B. which means I can’t leave the country D. who means I can’t leave the country

22. The girl ___________ is Australian.

A. is talking to Tom B. talking to Tom

C. who talk to Tom D. to talk to Tom

23. None of the people ____________ could come.

A. was invited to the party B. were invited to the party

C. who invited to the party D. invited to the party

24. An orphan is a child ___________.

A. who parents died B. whose parents are dead

C. that parents are dead D. his parents are dead

25.The hotel _____________ was very clean.

A. we stayed       B. which we stayed C. in that we stayed   D. where we stayed 

-----------THE END-----------


I/ LÝ THUYẾT: Câu chẻ hay còn được gọi là câu nhấn mạnh. Chúng được sử dụng khi muốn nhấn mạnh vào một đối tượng hay sự việc nào đó. Câu thường chia làm hai vế, một vế chính và một vế là mệnh đề quan hệ sử dụng that, who, when, while… Hãy cùng efc tìm hiểu về cấu trúc ngữ pháp này nhé.

1.Cấu trúc chung:

It is/was +… that/which/who +V…..

  • Nhấn mạnh chủ ngữ

It is/was + chủ ngữ (người) + who/that + V
It is/was + chủ ngữ (vật) + that + V

Ví dụ: 

– Mr. Hung teaches English at my school
=> It is Mr. Hung who/that teaches English at my school
– My dog made neighbors very scared
=> It was my dog that made neighbors very scared
It is my mother who cooks very well.
Mẹ tôi chính là người nấu ăn rất giỏi.

  • Nhấn mạnh tân ngữ

It is/was + tân ngữ (người) + that/whom + S + V
It is/was + tân ngữ (Danh từ riêng) + that + S + V
It is/was + tân ngữ (vật) + that + S + V

Ví dụ:

– I gave her a ring last week.
=> It was her that/whom I gave a ring last week.
Cô ấy chính là người mà tôi đã trao nhẫn vào tuần trước.
– He met Linh at school yesterday.
=> It was Linh that he met at school yesterday.
Anh ấy đã gặp Linh ở trường học ngày hôm qua.

  • Nhấn mạnh trạng ngữ (thời gian, nơi chốn, cách thức, lý do,…)

It is/was + trạng ngữ + that + S + V + O

Ví dụ:

– I was born in 1990
=> It was in 1990 that I was born.(trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian)

Tôi sinh ra vào năm 1990.

– You can learn more new words by using this method.

=> It is by using this method that you can learn more new words. (trạng ngữ chỉ cách thức)

Câu chẻ ở dạng bị động 

I. Câu chẻ bị động (Cleft sentences in the passive)

It + is / was + Noun / pronoun (person) + who + be + P.P…

Ex: Fans gave that singer a lot of flowers.

->It was that singer who was given a lot of flowers.

It + is / was + Noun (thing) + that + be + P.P…

Ex: People talk about this film.

→ It is this film that is talked about.

- Fans gave that singer a lot of flowers.

→ It was a lot of flowers that were given to that singer.

II/ EXERCISE :Choose the correct answer A, B, C, or D to each of the following questions.

1.……………. the police had rescued from the fire.

A. The baby B. The baby that C. It was the baby whom D. The baby whom

2.What was the name of your friend………. ?

A.his tent we borrowed B. who his tent we borrowed    

C.that his tent we borrowed D. whose tent we borrowed

3.I read a book about Picasso, ……………..

A. is a Spanish painter B. a Spanish painter          

C.who a Spanish painter is D. that is a Spanish painter

4.It was Mr. Harding ………. the bill to yesterday.   

A. who sent my secretary B. to whom my secretary sent      

C. that my secretary sent      D. my secretary sent 

5.England won the World Cup in 1966.

A. It was in 1966 that England won the World Cup.     B. It was on 1966 that England won the World Cup.

C. It was in 1966 when England won the World Cup    D. It was 1966 in that England won the World Cup.

6. We will leave for Paris in April.

A.It is April we will leave for Paris. B. It is in April that we will leave for Paris.

C. It was in April that we will leave for Paris. D. It is in April when we will leave for Paris.

7. ___________that the capital of South Carolina was moved from Charleston to Columbia.

A. In 1790 was B. There was in 1790            C. In 1790 D. It was in 1790

8. It was Mr. Harding ___________ the bill to yesterday.

A. who sent my secretary   B. to whom my secretary sent    C. that my secretary sent   D. my secretary sent 

9._________ on the phone.              

A. It is his mother whom is                             B. It was his mother whom is  

C. It was his mother who is                               D. It is his mother who is

10.___________ I bought the golden fish.

A. It was from this shop that   B. I was from this shop where    

C. It was this shop which   D. It was this shop that

11. It was Tom ___________ to help us.

A. comes   B. who comes               C. to come D. that came

12____ I bought the golden fish.

A. It was from this shop that B. I was from this shop where     

C. It was this shop which    D. It was this shop that

13. It was Mary ____ to help us.          

A. comes B. that comes                C. to com D. who came

14.……………. the police had rescued from the fire.

A. The baby B. The baby that C. It was the baby whom D. The baby whom

15……………. my parents gave me the fish tank.

A. It was on my birthday when   B. It was my birthday on that  

C. It was my birthday that  D. It was on my birthday that

16.……………. I first met my girlfriend.

A. It was in London that   B. It was in London where       

C. It was London that D. It was London which

17.……………. on the phone.

A. It is his mother whom is B. It was his mother whom is    

C. It is his mother who are   D. It is his mother who is

18.……………. a high level of blood cholesterol.

A. It is eggs that contain   B. Those are eggs it contains      C. It is eggs that contains D. It is eggs contain

19.……………. England won the World Cup.

A. It was in 1966 that B. It was on 1966 that C. It was in 1966 when D. It was 1966 in that

20……………. took my car.

A. It was you B. It were you C. It was you that D. It was you whom

------------THE END----------


( Sự hoà hợp giữa chủ từ và động từ) 


1. Danh từ  (NOUN)

a.Danh từ số ít (Singular Noun)

 - Danh từ không đếm được (uncountable noun)

Ex: food, milk, sugar, salt, fruit ...

- Danh từ theo sau A/ AN .. (không ở hình thức số nhiều)

 Ex: a book, a box, an apples

b.Danh từ số nhiều (Plural Noun)

 - Danh từ tận cùng là _S  / _ES

Ex: books, boxes, apples, ...

c. Cách thành lập danh từ số nhiều:    N(số ít) + S/ES              N(số nhiều)

*Những danh những danh từ bất quy tắc cần nhớ















-Danh từ số nhiều  nhưng hình thức số ít::           

Ex: the police, children, women, cattle ...

- Danh từ số ít nhưng luôn có S:         

1. Bệnh: measles (sởi), mumps (quai bị), rickets (còi xương), SARS, AIDS

2. Môn học: Mathematics, Physics, …

3. Thể thao: Gymnastics, billiars, ….

4. Quốc gia: The United States, The Phillipines..

5. Tổ chức: The United Nations…

2. Sự hòa hợp giữa chủ ngữ và động từ (Subject and verb agreement)

  * Quy tắc chung

Ssố ít+ Vsố ít 

Ex: The student is learning English. The worker works very well.        

Ssố nhiều + Vsố nhiều                    

Ex: The students are learning English. The  workers  work very well. 

*Các dạng đặc biệt:


S1    +   and   +    S2    +    V (số nhiều)

    Ex: He and his friends are good students.

                  John and I are going to play tennis.


              with / together with   

S1    +     along with / as well as    +    S2    +    V (theo S1)

               accompanied by

    Ex: The actress, along with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight.


Either                                    or

Neither          +     S1    +      nor     +    S2    +    V (theo S 2)

Not only                            but also

    Ex: Either you or I am wrong

                 Neither Tom’s parents nor his teacher is satisfied with his progress.


Every               Noun (singular)

Each     +                                               +  V (số ít)


Neither            of  +  Noun (plural)

    Ex: Every child has a toy.

                 Each job needs patience.

                 Each of the patients is examined every day.


Every / some

Any / no            +     one / body / thing       +      V (số ít)

  Ex: Everyone is ready.


A number of        +    Noun (plural)     +    V (số nhiều)       

The number of    +    Noun (plural)     +    V (số ít)       

  Ex: A number of the applicants have already been interviewed.

               The number of days in a week is seven.       

7. (N  +  preposition phrase)    +    V(theo danh từ)           

            Ex: The study of languages is very interesting.

8. Gerund  (as Subject)     +    V (số ít)       

Ex: Writing many letters makes her happy.

9. There + be + N (chia theo danh từ)

Ex: There are 28 students in my class.

II/ EXERCISE: Choose the best answer

1. Each of you …… responsible for this.

A. are                        B. being                    C. is D. be

2. Bill together with his brothers …… to the beach every morning.

A. going                    B. goes                     C. are D. gone

3. Either the monitor or the athletes …… to blame for the bad result.

A. be                         B. are                         C. is D. to be

4. Everyone …… with me about my plans.

A. agree                       B. agreeing                C. disagree D. agrees

5. Tim as well as his relatives …… safe from the hurricane.

A. be                            B. is                           C. are D. being

6. The results of Dr. Frank’s experiment …… announced on TV last night.   

A. is                            B. are                          C. was D. were

7. Fifty minutes …… the maximum length of time allowed for the exam.

A. is                             B. be                           C. are D. were

8. The cost of living …… over 10% in the last few years.

A. rises                        B. has risen                C. rose D. is rising

9. A number of sheep …… eating grass now.

A. is                            B. are                           C. was D. were

10. Measles …… sometimes a serious disease.

A. is                            B. are                         C. being D. be   

11. Making cakes and pies …… Mrs. Reed’s specialty.

A. are                          B. were                     C. is D. be

12. Plenty of milk …… consumed everyday.

A. are                  B. were                 C. is D. was

13. SARS …… an epidemic that kills many people in china.

A. are                  B. were                  C. have been D. is 

14. The United States …… between Canada and Mexico.

A. lying                   B. lies                   C. lain D. lie

15.The students in the next classroom …… very loudly everyday.

A. talk                       B. talked                 C. are talking D. talks

16. Measles _____ a dangerous disease.

A. are B. was C. is D. were

17. The furniture _____ more expensive than we think.

A. are B. were C. have D. is

18. Four weeks _____ a longer time to wait him.

A. are B. were C. has D. is

19. Each student ______ an apple.

A. has been given B. to give C. are given D. were given

20. Three thousand dollars _____ a big sum of money.

A. is B. are C. were D. have

21. Water and oil ………mix.

A. does not B. have not C. do not D. is not

22. The rich _____ always happy

A. are not B. is not C. do not D. does not

23. The injured _____ taken to the hospital recently.

A. have been B. has been C. were D. was

24. A few books I have read _____ famous

A. has been B. was C. is D. are

25. The number of students in this class _____ small.

A. are B. were C. have been D. is

26. A number of children _____ cakes.

A. likes C. are liking C. like D. to like

27. No student _____ in the hall. 

A. is B. are C. were D. have been

28. No students ____ on the schoolyard.

A. is B. was C. be D. are

29. There ___ a fire in this room now.

A. is B. are C. were C. was

30. Not only my brother but also my sisters ____ here.

A. is B. are C. was D. be

--------------THE END------------

CHUYÊN ĐỀ 8:  COMPARISON (Tính từ so sánh)


1. Comparative(So sánh hơn)
                                                    Short Adj: S + be/V + adj/adv + er + than + N/ Pronoun
                                                    Long Adj: S + be/ V + more + adj/ adv + than + N/Pronoun
- She is taller than I/me
- This bor is more intelligent than that one.

Để nhấn mạnh:                 S + V + much /far + adj + er + than + N/Pronoun
Ex: Today is much hotter tham yesterday

@ Dạng khác:                                        

  • So sánh kém hơn:                     S + be + less + adj + than + N/Pronoun.(ít hơn)
    Ex: My TV is less beautiful than yours.

                                                             S + V + less + adv + than + N/Pronoun.(ít hơn)
Ex: He drives less carefully than I think

2. Superlative(So sánh nhất)
                                                      Short adj: S + be + the + adj + est + N/pronoun
                                                      Long adj: S + be + the most + adj + N/pronoun.

- She is the tallest girl in the village.
- He is the most gellant boy in class.

-So sánh kém  nhất: S + V + the least + adj + N/pronoun(ít nhất)

Ex; He is the least intelligent boy in the class.

3. Equality(So sánh bằng)     (+) S + be/ V + as + adj/adv + as + N/Pronoun
                                                    (-)   S + be/ V + not + so/as + adj/adv + N/Pronoun
+She is as stupid as I/me
+This boy is as tall as that one
(Không lặp lại từ đã dùng ở chủ ngữ)
+ Population of Ho Chi Minh city isn"t as much as that of Bangkok.

3.1/  The same……as: giống

                 S + V + the same + Noun + as + noun/ pronoun 

Ex: My house is as high as his.

        My house is the same height as his.

Chú ý:
-1.Những tính từ ngắn kết thúc bằng một phụ âm mà ngay trước nó là nguyên âm duy nhất thì chúng ta nhân đôi phụ âm lên rồi thêm "er" trong so sánh hơn và "est" trong so sánh nhất.(ex:hot-->hotter/hottest)
-2.Những tính từ có hai vần,kết thúc bằng chữ "y" thì đổi "y" thành "i" rồi thêm "er" trong so sánh hơn và "est" trong so sánh nhất(ex:happy-->happier/happiest)
3.Những tính từ/trạng từ đọc từ hai âm trở lên gọi là tính từ dài,một âm gọi là tính từ ngắn.Tuy nhiên,một số tính từ có hai vần nhưng kết thúc bằng "le","et","ow","er"vẫn xem là tính từ ngắn

4. Các tính từ so sánh bất quy tắc thì học thuộc lòng 


Equal degree




bad/badly/ ill




good/ well













Farther (khoảng cách)/ further (thời gian)

farthest/ furthest



Older (về tuổi tác)/ Eldest (về cấp bậc hơn tuổi tác)

oldest/ eldest




Nearest (khoảng cách)/ Next (thứ tự)




Latest (time)/ last (thứ tự)

5. Double comparison(So sánh kép)


    a. Tính từ ngắn :  nghĩa : càng lúc càng . . ., càng ngày càng . . .

Công thức :                                

S + V + Adj + er  and  Adj + er

Ex:  - Some people become richer and richer.

- It gets darker and darker.  

b. Tính từ dài :

Công thức :                                

S + V + More and more + Adj

Ex :  - The cost of living is more and more expensive.

c/ Càng ngày càng ít.........., càng ngày càng kém.....................

S + V + less  and  less + Adj

Ex: My father becomes less and less strong.


- Những tính từ 2 vần tận cùng bằng :  y, el, er, ow  được coi như một vần, do đó khi so sánh , chỉ cần

       thêm er vào sau tính từ mà thôi.

Ex :  - happy      🡪      happier simple      🡪     simpler

        - clever     🡪       cleverer narrow     🡪      narrower  

- Một số tính từ có bậc so sánh bất quy tắc :

        - bad                 🡪       worse good, well  🡪    better

        - many, much   🡪       more little            🡪    less

        - far                   🡪       farther, further


a. Tính từ ngắn:   nghĩa :    càng , , , càng . . .

Công thức :                

The + Adj + er + S + V, the + Adj +er + S + V

Ex : The higher the sun rises, the warmer the weather is.

b. Tính từ dài.

Cơng thức :           

The more + Adj + S + V,  the more + Adj + S + V

Ex :  - The more difficult the test is, the more nervous the students are.

c. Với động từ : The more + S + V,  the more + S + V

Ex: The more I hate him, the more he loves me

d. Càng ít...........thì càng ít......./ Càng kém.........thì càng kém......

a. Tính từ ngắn:   Công thức :                

The less + Adj + S + V, the  less + Adj + S + V

Ex: The less cold it is, the less well I am

b. Tính từ dài.

Công thức :           

The les + S + V,  the less + S + V

Ex: The less she dances, the less  I hate her.


- So sánh kép vẫn có thể áp dụng cho Trạng từ, Danh từ, Động từ.

Ex :   - The more books you read, the more knowledge you get.    ( so sánh Danh từ )

        - The more I meet him, the more I hate him.                           ( so sánh Động từ )

        - The faster you drive, the sooner you arrive.                          ( so sánh Trạng từ )

- Hai vế so sánh có thể khác nhau.

Ex :   - The longer he waited, the more impatient he became.       ( so sánh Trạng từ và Tính từ)

          - The more electricity you use, the higher your bill is.          ( so sánh Danh từ và Tính từ )

          - The faster people drive, the more accidents happen.          ( so sánh Trạng từ và Danh từ )

II/ EXERCISE : Choose the best option to complete each sentence:

1. Of the four dresses, which is ………………..expensive?

A. the best B. the most C. the more D. the greater

2. The larger the apartment, the................... the rent.

A. expensive B. more expensive C. expensively D. most expensive

3. The faster we walk,………….. we will get there.

A. the soonest B. the soon C. the more soon D. the sooner

4. “ Why did you buy these oranges? ” “They were ……….….. I could find. ”

A. cheapest B. cheapest ones C. the cheapest ones D. the most cheapest

5. She plays the piano …………… as she sings.

A. as beautifully B. more beautifully C. as beautiful D. the most beautifully

6. The streets are getting more and …………… these days.

A. crowded B. less crowded C. more crowded D. most crowded

7. The larger the city, …………… the crime rate.

A. highest B. higher C. the highest D. the higher

8. You must explain your problems …………....

A. as clear as you can B. as clearly as you can   C. as clear than you are D. as clearly as you are

9. Pil is ……………… person we know.

A. the happier B. the happiest C. happier D. happiest

10. Which woman are you going to vote for? –I’m not sure. Everyone says that Joan is………….

A. smarter B. the smarter C. more smarter D. more smart

11. Bill is ………………

A. lazier and lazier B. more and more lazy    C. lazier and more lazy D. more lazy and lazier

12. It’s too noisy here. Can we go somewhere …………………?

A. noisier B. more quiet C. more noisy D. quieter

13. ……….the time passes, ….I feel ! The deadline of my thesis is coming, but I have just finished half of it.

A. The faster / the nervous B. The more fast / the nervous

C. The fast / the more nervous D. The faster / the more nervous

14. China is the country with…………………..population.

A. the larger B. the more large C. the largest D. the most large

15. She sat there quietly, but during all that time she was getting…………….Finally she exploded. 

A. more and more angry   B. the more angry C. angrier and angrier D. the most angry

16. For ……………….., it is certain that in the future some things will be very different.

A. the better or the worse   B. the good or the bad    C. good or bad D. better or worse

17. Her grandfather’s illness was…………………..we thought at first.

A. more seriously as     B. as seriously as B. more serious than D. as serious than 

18. My brother was feeling tired last night, so he went to bed…………..usual. 

A. more early than     B. as early as C more earlier as D. earlier than

19._______ you study for these exams, _______ you will do.

A. The harder / the better  B. The more / the much

C. The hardest / the best D. The more hard / the more good

20. His house is _______ mine.

A. twice as big as B. as twice big as C. as two times big as D. as big as twice

21. No one else in the class plays the guitar ______ John.

  A. as well B. as far as C. so well as D. as soon as

22. The town was nearer _____ we thought it would be.

A. then B. that C. as D. than

23. the economic conditions today are _______  they were in the past.

A. much more good B. much better than C. much better   D. the best than

24.Peter is ______ student in my class.

A. taller than B. so tall as C. the talllest D. tallest

25.The deep oceans contain some of the ______ of all living creatures. 

A. strangest B. strange C. as strange as D. stranger

26.Jane is not _____ her brother.

A. more intelligent as B. intelligent as C. so intelligent as D. so intelligent that

27.He drives as ______ his father does.

A. careful as B. more carefully C. the most careful D. carefully as

28.What’s the ______ film you’ve ever seen.

A. good B. best C. better D. the best

29.Jane is ______ age as Mary.

A. as same B. the most same C. the same D. more same

30.I’ll be there _______ I can.

A. sooner as B. no sooner as C. as soon as D. soonest as

--------------THE END-------------


I/ ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME (Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian)

  1. Lan has learnt English since she_________ a small girl. 

A. is B. was C. has been D. had been

  1. Don’t go anywhere untill I_________  back. 

  A. come B. came C. will come D. am coming

  1. Before cars_________  , people_________ horses and bicycles. 

A. were discovered/ had used     B. dicovering/ had used     

C. had discovered/ used D. discovered/ had used

  1. I am going to speak with the boss when the meeting _______. 

A. will end B. ends C. is ending D. would end

  1. When we_________ him tomorrow, We will remind him of that. 

A. will see B. see C. am seeing D. saw.  

  1. When he comes, I_________ her the news. 

A. tell B. will tell C. would tell D. would have told 

  1. When the police came, they _________.

A. are fighting B. fought C. would be fighting D. were fighting

  1. Before she came to England, she _________ English. 

A. studied B. will study C. had studied D was studying 

  1. I have lost touch with him _________ He left for London. 

A. as soon as B. after C. before D. since 

  1. My mother is washing the dishes _________ my father is watching television. 

A. when B. while C. as D. since 

  1. _______, I will give him the report. 

A. When he will return B. When he returns        C. Until he will return        D. No sooner he returns

  1. _______ the firemen arrived to help, we had already put out the fire. 

A. Until B. No sooner C. By the time D. After

  1. I have earned my own living _______ I was seven. 

A. since B. when C. while D. as soon as

  1. We saw many beautiful birds _______ in the lake. 

A when we are fishing B. while fishing C. while fished D. fishing

  1. _______, Peter came to see me. 

A. While having dinner B. While I was having dinner       

C. When having dinner  D. When lam having dinner

II/ CLAUSE OF RESULT (Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ kết quả.)


1. My mouth is burning! This is ___________ spicy food that I don’t think I can finish it.

A. such B. so C. very D. too

2. Our village had ____________ money available for education that the school had to close.

A. so little B. such little C. so much D. such much

3. Timmy spent __________ money buying movie tickets that he didn’t have enough left to buy a soft drink. 

A. such B. a lot of C. too much D. so much

4. It was _________that we went for a hike in the mountain.

A. so a nice day B. such nice a day C. so nice a day D. such a day nice

5. There are not __________ jobs for all of us.

A. such B. so C. enough D. too 

6. The T- shirt in the window was ________ expensive for me to buy.

A. too B. enough C. so D. very

7. _________ that she burst into tears.

A. So angry was she. B. She was so anger     C. Such her anger was       D. So angry she was

8. Sarah speaks so ____________ that I can’t understand her.

A. fast B. fastly C. faster D. fastest

9. Mr. Brown has ________ many patient ________ he is always busy. 

A. too – that B. very – until C. such – that D. so- that

10. The coat is __________for me to wear.

A. too large B. so much C. very much D. too much

11. The furniture was _________.

A. such expensive that I couldn’t buy it B. enough cheap for me to buy

C. so expense that I did buy it D. too expensive for me to buy

12. There are ________ planets in the universe that we can’t count them.

A. so much B. such C. so many D. so

13. Paul was ________ sad about his examination results that he didn’t smile all week.

A. enough B. so C. such D. too

14. When Franklin Roosevelt decided to run for a fourth term, the opposite said that he was_________.

A. so old B. too old C. oldest D. very older

15. Last Sunday it was _______ wet ______ we couldn’t go to the movies.

A. as – as B. more – than C. less – than D. so – that

III/ CLAUSE OF CONCESSSION (Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự tương phản)

1. ______ some German and British management styles are similar, there are many differences between them.

a. In spite b. In spite of c. Despite the fact that  d. Despite

  1. I could not eat _______ I was very hungry.

a. even though b. in spite c. despite      d. in spite the fact that

3. In spite _______, the baseball game was not cancelled.

a. the rain b. of the rain c. it was raining d. there was a rain

4._______ he had enough money, he refused to buy a new car.

a. In spite b. In spite of c. Despite d. Although

5._______, he walked to the station.

a. Despite being tired b. Although to be tired c. In spite being tired d. Despite tired

6. The children slept well, despite _______.

a. it was noise b. the noise c. of the noise d. noisy

7. She left him _______ she still loved him.

a. even if b. even though c. in spite of  d. despite

8._______ her lack of hard work, she was promoted. 

a. In spite b. Even though c. In spite of d. Despite of 

9._______ they are brothers, they do not look like.

a. Although b. Even c. Despite d. In spite of

10. We are concerned with the problem of energy resources _______ we must also think of our environment.

a. despite b. though c. as though d. but

  1. _______ some Japanese women are successful in business, the majority of Japanese companies are run by men.

a. But b. Even if c. If d. As though

12.  _________ who you are, I still love you.

a. No matter b. However c. whomever d. If

13. __________ others may say, you are certainly right.

A. However B. whomever C. If D. Whatever

14. They decided to go ______ the danger.

A. because  B. in spite of C. although D. so

15. ______ they lost, their fans gave them a big cheer.

  A. However B. In spite of C. Although D. if

IV/ CLAUSE OF PURPOSE (Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ mục đích)

1. The schoolboys are in a hurry ______ they will not be late for school.

A. so as to B. to C. for D. in order that

2. I gave him my e-mail address ______ he could keep in touch with me.

A. that B. so that C. such that D. so as to

3. We decided to join the English speaking club ______ improve our English.

A. so that B. so to C. in order D. to

4. ______ learn how to use a computer, he decides to take lessons.

A. To B. In order to C. So as         D. A & B are correct

5. He walked silently ______ wake the other people.

A. to not B. to avoid C. so as to not D. in order not to

6. She wore glasses and a wig ______ we couldn’t recognise her.

A. so that B. so as to C. in order to       D. B & C are correct

7. He locked the door ______ be disturbed.

A. in order not B. in order not to C. in order to not      D. in order that he not

8.______ English fluently, we should practise speaking it whenever possible.

A. In order to speak B. To speaking C. In order speak  D. In order for speaking

9. The boy always does his homework before class ______ be punished by his teacher.

A. so as not to B. so as to C. so that not to      D. in order that not to

10. Seat belt laws were introduced ______ traffic fatalities would be reduced.

A. in order that B. so as to C. such that D. provided that

11. She phoned me ______.

A. so that she invites me to her party C. to invite me to her party

B. that she invited me to her party D. for she wanted to invite me to her party

12. Mary took a taxi ______ she could arrive at the conference on time.

A. in order B. that C. so that D. A & B are correct

13. Mary put on her scarf ______ she ______ not get cold.

A. so that / will B. to / would C. so as to / will D. so that / would

14. I’ll give you my telephone number ______ phone me.

A. so that you can     B. to C. want to      D. A & B are correct

--------------THE END-------------



1/ BOTH … AND ( vừa..vừa… , cả …. lẫn..) 

Ví dụ:

Both Mary and Tom are students ( cả Mary lẫn Tom đều là sinh viên)

I like both aranges and apples. ( tôi thích cả cam và táo)

2/ NOT  ONLY … BUT ALSO ( không những … mà còn … )

Công thức giống như
Both ..and 

Ví dụ:

Not only Mary but also Tom likes dogs ( không những Mary mà Tom đều thích chó )

3/ NEITHER … NOR ( không…. cũng không…, cả 2 đều không..)

Ví dụ:

Neither Mary nor
Tom likes dogs ( cả Mary lẫn Tom đều không thích chó )

4/ EITHER … OR ( hoặc là ….hoặc là …) 

Ví dụ:

Either Mary or Tom likes dogs ( hoặc là Mary hoặc là Tom thích chó )

Lưu ý:

Tất cả các cấu trúc trên chỉ dùng cho 2 đối tượng.

EXERCISES: Multiple Choice

1. I don’t like this book . It is  ______ interesting ______ cheap . 

A. both – and B. either – or C. neither – nor D. not only – but also 

2. Neither Linda nor I _____ classical music. 

A. liking B. liked C. like D. likes 

3. The baby is only two months old . He can ____ speak ____walk . 

A. neither / nor B. either / or C. both / and D. not / nor 

4. He _______ a teacher or a doctor . 

A. is neither B. neither is C. is either D. either is 

5. She is ______friendly _____intelligent so I can’t help admiring her . 

A. not only / but also B. either / or C. both / and D. A&C are correct 

6. John is very poor. He has ______ house ______ money. 

   A. both – and B. either – or C. neither – nor D. not only – but also

7. ______ Linh ______ her sister like listening to pop music . 

A.Both – and B. Either – or C. Neither – nor D. Not only – but also 

8. Neither my friend nor I _____ that movie. 

A. don’t like  B. likes  C. doesn’t like D. like  

9. Who wrote you this love letter? - I"m not sure. I think it was ___ Michael ___ Paul.

   A. both – and B. either – or C. neither – nor D. not only – but also

10. ___ Linda ___ Helen called to say sorry. I"m very sad and frustrated.

   A. Both – and B. Either – or C. Neither – nor D. Not only – but also

11. ___ Ryan ___ Susie have disappointed me. They didn"t come to my birthday party.

   A. Both – and B. Either – or C. Neither – nor D. Not only – but also

12. He hurt  ___ her feelings ___ her dignity. This is unforgivable.

   A. both – and B. either – or C. neither – nor D. not only – but also

13. ___ loyalty ___ honesty are essential in a friendship.

   A. Both – and B. Either – or C. Neither – nor D. Not only – but also

14. You should ___ disrespect ___ deceive your friends.

   A. both – and B. either – or C. neither – nor D. not only – but also

15. I will take you ___ to the cinema ___ to the theatre. That"s a promise.

   A. both – and B. either – or C. neither – nor D. not only – but also

16. Neither my brother ________________ my mother knows about this.
  A. both  B. either C. and D. nor

17. I felt ________________ happy and sad at the same time. 

A. both B. neither C. either D. not only

18. ________________ of the girls know how to dance. ( = Both girls are bad dancers)
  A. too  B. either C. neither D. nor

19. He ________________ has a cat or a dog. I can"t remember.
  A. too  B. either C. neither D. nor

20. Not only Lee but also his sons ___ chess very well. 

A. plays B. has played C. is playing D. play 

21. I"m thinking of traveling to either Argentina ________________ Brazil.
  A. or B. either C. neither D. nor

22. I left it ____ on the table ____ in the drawer.

A. either – nor B. neither – or C. either – or D. not only – but also

23. ____ the radio ____ the television works properly.

A. Neither – nor B. Neither – or C. Either – nor D. Not – nor

24. He ____ could not come ____ did not want to.

A. either – or B. neither – or C. either – nor D. not only – but also

25. Not ____ did she refuse to speak to him, but she also vowed never to see him again.

A. even B. only C. at all D. always

26. He neither drank ____ smoked, so he had good health.

A. nor B. or C. but D. also

27. Now women work both before ____ after having their children.

A. or B. also C. nor D. and

28. She ____ hard but also gets on well with her classmates.

A. doesn’t only study B. studies not only C. not only studies D. not studies only

29. Either you leave now ____!

A. I will also call the police B. but I will call the police

C. or will I call the police D. or I will call the police

30. Not only John but also his two brothers ____ football as their recreation every weekend.

A. play B. plays C. were playing D. has played

--------------THE END-------------


I/ Công thức :
                                                              S + V + O , [ ] + ĐẠI TỪ ?

Trong đó: Đại từ : Lấy chủ từ câu đầu đổi thành đại từ

Đàn ông ---> he
Phụ nữ ----> she
Vật (số ít ) --- -> it
There --- -> there
This --- -> it
That --- -> it
These --- -> they
Those --- -> they
Số nhiều ----> they 

Nguyên tắc chung khi lập câu hỏi đuôi:
+ Nếu câu nói trước dấu phẩy là câu khẳng định, câu hỏi đuôi bắt buộc phải ở thể phủ định.
+ Nếu câu nói trước dấu phẩy là câu phủ định, câu hỏi đuôi bắt buộc phải ở thể khẳng định.

+ Nếu câu đầu có NOT, hoặc các yếu tố phủ định như : never, rarely, no, hardly, neither, little, few, seldom ...., thì cuối câu không có NOT, nếu câu đầu không có NOT thì cuối câu có NOT

I am ----> Aren"t I ?
No body, Every one ...------> [   ] they ?
Everything, anything….-----[   ] it ?
Câu mệnh lệnh -------> Will you ?
Used to didn"t 

Had better hadn"t 

Would rather wouldn"t....... 

Wish  may + subject

Let"s ....--------> shall we ?

Câu đầu có must: Must có nhiều cách dùng cho nên tùy theo cách dùng mà có câu hỏi đuôi khác nhau.
- Must chỉ sự cần thiết, dùng needn’t
Ex : They must study hard, needn’t they ?
- Must chỉ sự cấm đoán, dùng must
Ex : You mustn’t come late, must you ?
- Must chỉ sự dự đoán ở hiện tại, dựa vào động từ theo sau must.
Ex : He must be a very intelligent student, isn’t he ?
- Must chỉ sự dự đoán ở quá khứ (trong công thức must + have + PP), dùng have/has
Ex : You must have stolen my bike, haven’t you ?

- Lan can go, can"t she ? ( động từ đặt biệt đem can ra sau)
- Tom likes it, doesn"t he ? (không có động từ đặt biệt nên mượn trợ động từ does )
- The dogs won"t run, will they ? ( câu đầu có not nên câu sau không có not )
- Go out with me, will you ? ( câu mệnh lệnh )
- Don"t take it, will you ? ( mệnh lệnh ,dù có not hay không cũng dùng will you )
- I am a student, aren"t I ?


1. Thu’s father reads a morning newspaper everyday, ___________?
2. The teacher is going to explain a new grammar lesson, ___________?
3. Their classmates were so excited about the games yesterday, ___________?
4. Lan enjoys sewing clothes for her doll, ___________?
5. Hoa did a lot of homework last night, ___________?
6. Schools may be closed if it snows heavily, ___________?
7. She has visited the citadel in Hue twice, ___________?
8. People have to rebuild the building after fire, ___________?
9. Their children enjoy playing computer games, ___________?
10. You will have a cable TV soon, ___________?

11/ You have heard about that, _________________?
12/ Nam did the work well, _____________?
13/ He didn’t have to speak to me, ______________?
14/ He won’t fall down, __________________?
15/ You wouldn’t like the window open, _______________?
16/ He used to beat his wife, ________________?
17/ Come and see me tomorrow, _____________?
18/ Don’t sheet the door, _________________?
19/ Let’s sing together, _________________?
20/ I’d better go, _______________?
21/ I am your teacher, ________________?
22/ There’s an examination tomorrow, ______________?
23/ She’s been studying English for 2 years, _______________?
24/ You can’t play tennis today, _______________?
25/ Let me lend you a hand, __________________?
26/ Everybody can learn how to swim, ______________?
27/ He hardly feeds his family, ________________?
28/ She could scarcely hear what he said, ______________?